Bonaparte's blitzkrieg in Italy.
"Soldiers, You have descended like a torrent from the summit of the Apennines,
you have overthrown, scattered everything that opposed your progress.
... your fellow-citizens will point to you and say: "He was of the Army of Italy !"
- Bonaparte, 1796

1. "France had been an aggressive neighbor..."
2. Bonaparte in Italy.
3. Battle of Dego.
4. Operations Against Colli and Beaulieu.
5. Battle of Lodi.
6. "Bonaparte's instinct for war
- had met every challenge !"

7. Sources and Links.



Bonaparte on donkey 
crossing the Alps.
Picture by Delaroche. "Bonaparte goes up in the mountains.
He spreads his forces out.
The enemy doesn’t know where he is
so they begin to spread their forces out.
Then at the last minute he quickly
concentrates his forces, he achieves
mass superiority at one point and then
blasts them. It’s lightning." -Howard

The French invaded Sardinian provinces of Savoy and Nice.
They captured Mainz and raided German Frankfurt.
In 1793 the French army invaded Holland.

"France had been an aggressive neighbor..."
- John Elting

Events of 1796:

  • - Persian Expedition of 1796: Russian troops storm Derbent.
  • - USA takes possession of Detroit from Britain.
  • - U.S. President George Washington issues his Farewell Address.
  • - John Adams defeats Thomas Jefferson in the U.S. presidential election.
  • - Bonaparte marries Josephine.
  • - Empress Catherine II of Russia called Catherine The Great dies.

    French infantryman, by Myrbach The 1790s were turbulent times in Europe. France had been an aggressive neighbor and other European powers were willing enough to see her weakened. The undisciplined French revolutionary troops invaded Belgium but refused to fight against the highly trained Austrians.
    In 1792 Duke of Brunswick's 100,000 Prussians, Austrians, French Royalists and some Hessians gathered for a march on Paris. The desertion was high and the weather was awful. Duke of Brunswick detached many of his troops to guard his line of communication. All what was left were 35,000 men. They crossed the French border and met 33,000 French under Kellermann and Dumoriez at Valmy. The French won, thanks to their artillery.

    The French invaded Sardinian provinces of Savoy and Nice, captured Mainz (Mayence) and raided Frankfurt. In autumn they invaded Flanders, defeated the Austrians and took the whole country, incl. the wealthy city-port of Antwerp. Great Britain was enraged ("a pistol pointed at the heart of England"). Austria, after the loss of Flanders, was absolutely furious. The Sardinians were frightened. Austria, Great Britain, Sardinia, Prussia, Spain and Holland formed the First Coalition against France.

    French infantry 1796 In 1793 the French under Dumoriez invaded Holland but were defeated by the Austrians at Neerwinden. The French commander attempted a counter-revolution, failed and fled to the Austrians.
    The morale of French armies collapsed and they withdrew behind their own borders.

    The British supported with money and troops the Royalist revolts in Vendee and Toulon, while the Austrians and Prussians besieged French fortresses on the northern borders. France was in crisis and Jacobin fanatics, incl. Robespierre, took power. Many unsuccessful generals went to the guillotine, the troops were reorganized and thousands of highly enthusiastic volunteers filled its ranks.

    In 1796, France, having won its own freedom, would now fight for the liberation of all Europe. The only problem was her armies. The troops were unpaid, hungry and lacked clothes, they were almost mutinous. The Austrian Supreme War Council gave up hope of recovering Belgium but considered an offensive to clear the French from Italy.
    Great Britain pressed Austria for more decisive action and offered money. Austria, hoping for substantial financial support, sent another strong army to Germany. Approx. 95,000 white-coats were under the command of Archduke Charles.

    Map: France's military situation in 1796
    General Jourdan's "Army of Sambre-Meuse" (75,000 men)
    - against 95,000 Austrians under Archduke Charles. It was the best and the biggest of allies' armies in that time. Soon it will enjoy series of victories against the French army. Archduke Charles will win his fame and Wellington will declare him as the best of Allied generals.

    General Moreau's "Army of Rhine-Moselle" (80,000 men)
    - against 85,000 Austrians under Wurmser

    General Bonaparte's "Army of Italy" (60,000 men)
    - against 55,000 Austrians and Italians (Sardinians)

    General Kellermann's "Army of the Alps" (18,000 men)
    - guarding the Alps passages

    General Hoche's "Army of the West" (15,000 men)
    - for invasion of Ireland.

    In February 1797 General Tate [an American officer !] made a raid with 4 ships and 1,230 French troops against Fishguard in Great Britain. The French morale was low due to very cold winter weather and hunger. The soldiers were second rate troops, they were recruited from convicts, deserters etc. For several days they looted the English villages and searched for food. There were also several skirmishes with the British Yeomanry, militia, Royal Navy sailors, and some artillery before Tate and the few starwing French surrendered. For more info click here. (

    Young Bonaparte In this turbulent time officer Bonaparte appeared on the scene.
    Napoleon was born in 1769. In the age of 10 he was admitted to the Military Academy at Brienne.
    When Bonaparte was 15 years old he moved to Paris for advanced training. In 1785 Bonaparte passed the artillery examination and was commissioned a second lieutenat in artillery.
    The young Bonaparte was described during military academy's evaluation as "well versed in mathematics and geography; was taciturn, loved solitude, was obstinate, proud, and exceptionally inclined to egotism; spoke little, was energetic in his answers, ready and severe in his refutations."
    In the age of 22 Bonaparte became first lieutenant and the next year he got himself elected to an auxiliary post of a Corsican volunteer infantry. His name was removed from the French Army rolls for absence without leave. Bonaparte returned and went straight to Paris where he vigorously protested. He obtained not only his reinstatement but advanced to captain !
    Bonaparte's Corsican battalion participated in unsuccessful expedition against Sardinia. He then decided to seek his fortunes in the French Army and joined his artillery regiment, which was engaged in the siege of Tulon.

    British ship-of-the-line In 1790s "political commissars" accompanied the French troops and wielded supreme power. One of them was Saliceti of Corsica. When the commander of artillery at Toulon was wounded, Saliceti secured the post for young Napoleon Bonaparte.
    In 1793 at French Royalists invitation, British and Spanish forces occupied Toulon, the main French naval base on the Mediterranean. Bonaparte first made his name here as a young officer of artillery, by spotting an ideal place for his guns to be set up in such a way that they dominated the city's harbour. Once this was done (by means of a sharp assault on an enemy position), the British Navy ships under Admiral Hood and the Spaniards under Juan de Langara were compelled to withdraw, and the resistance crumbled.

    Robespierre was enthusiastic and wrote to Paris about this ambitious officer of artillery and his achievement. Bonaparte was promoted to general of brigade.

    Bonaparte In 1795 Bonaparte was in Paris when a counter-revolutionary uprising broke out in the city. Barras selected him to restore order. This he did quickly, he smashed the rebellion in a matter of hours.

    On October 5, 1795, when he fired the famous "whiff of grapeshot" a single artillery salvo in that suppressed the uprising. Bonaparte was promoted to general of division.
    Although soon Bonaparte was assigned to a very high post, the commander of the Army of the Interior, he continued writing about the Army of Italy. He criticized that army's operations, slowness, lack of success and poor tactics. Scherer, the commander of Army of Italy was infuriated by the flow of plans, which he considered to be beyond the capabilities of his army. Scherer resigned and was replaced with Bonaparte.

  • ~

    "In a fortnight he [Bonaparte] was ready for the field and made his first move.
    Five days later he had already four times defeated the Austrians.
    Then he turned upon the Sardinians, who in another 5 days
    were in helpless retreat on Turin."
    - Wilkinson, Spenser "The French army before Napoleon;
    lectures delivered before the University of Oxford ..." pp 9-10

    Bonaparte in Italy.
    "Bonaparte is not known for any striking feat,
    but he is understood to be a profound theorist
    and a man of talent."
    - Allies chief-of-staff in 1796

    Bonaparte in Italy,
picture by Job Bonaparte took the command of the Army of Italy and moved the headquarters to Albenga. The motives for his appointment were political. By placing him in command of the Army of Italy, Bonaparte was being relegated to obscurity.

    Of the French Republic's 13 field armies, the army in Italy was the most neglected. It was in horrible condition when Bonaparte arrived. Bonaparte's army lacked sufficient cavalry and artillery and his infantry was weakened by detachments sent to guard the coast against British and Sardinian navies. The French soldiers were chronically unpaid and short of everything: uniforms, shoes, greatcoats, bayonets, ammunition etc. etc. They kept themselves alive by plundering the French and Italian countryside.
    "In Italy the outlook for France seemed desperate. The French army of Italy was unshod, clothed in rags, half-starved. It lacked transport; it had no money. Under the stress of privations its discipline was beginning to fail. Its experienced commander, Scherer, though he had won in the autumn the battle of Loano, declared himself helpless unless he could be supplied with reinforcements, provisions, and funds. But the Directory was penniless; it could not create transport out of nothing nor raise troops in a country exhauseted by the exactions of the Terror.
    The Directors risked the hazard of giving the command to the young general, Bonaparte, who had confidence in himself, and had rendered some service in the suppression of a dangerous riot." (Wilkinson, Spenser - "The French army before Napoleon; lectures delivered before the University of Oxford ..." p 9)

    Map of Italy in 1796 The Allies commanders in Italy, Colli and Beaulieu, had noted Bonaparte's arrival. Colli's chief-of-staff had reported: "Bonaparte is not known for any striking feat, but he is understood to be a profound theorist and a man of talent."

    The Allies however knew that the Army of Italy was in poor shape and believed it was incapable of an attack in the near future. The Austrians were eager to occupy Genoa, for from there they could maintain contact with the British fleet under Admiral Jervis and Nelson. Meanwhile Bonaparte intensified reconnaissance and stiffened discipline. He also reorganized the army into advance guard under Massena (18,000), and the main body under Augereau and Serurier.

    Bonaparte knew that there was not much love lost between the Austrians and Italians. Therefore he would strike between the two enemy armies, splitting them apart. This accomplished, he was certain that the enemy would be concerned primarily with the protection of their bases in Milan and Turin. Bonaparte could then concentrate against Colli's army, without interference from Beaulieu.


    Austrian light cavalry came with sensational news
    that Dego is full of sleeping French veterans.
    Austrian infantry "promptly hit Dego like a rockslide."

    Battle of Dego, 14th-15th April 1796.
    Bonaparte was angry, Massena and his troops
    were again routed by the white-coats.

    Allies led by Beaulieu began their offensive by attacking Bonaparte's advance guard commanded by Massena. General Beaulieu (1725-1819) was a seasoned general. He had held his own in Belgium against Dumouriez in 1792, and Jourdan in 1794. Beaulieu was chief of staff to the army of Duke of York. In 1794 he received the rank of Feldzeugmeister.

    Général Masséna's advance guard stood in Voltri ( and Beaulieu attempted to trap the whole French command. When the white-coats pushed Massena out of Voltri, Bonaparte was furious. Bonaparte's army was not yet ready for offensive but he recognized that this little combat offers him an excellent opportunity to trick Beaulieu out of position. Beaulieu personally commanded the troops in Voltri and met with the British squadron under Nelson. Unfortunately Argentau's troops (part of Beaulieu's army) were still far away and Beaulieu was worried.

    Bonaparte arrived, noticed that Beaulieu and Argentau were separated and Colli's Italians were not stirred up by the event, so he issued orders for the offensive. Bonaparte's troops moved immediately after the issue of ammunition, in rain and darkness. His scouting parties were reconnoitering very aggressively against Argentau. Against Colli's army were sent troops under Serurier, they were to immobilize the enemy by demonstrations, but not to attack.

    Austrian infantry in Italy
in 1790s. Beaulieu happy with his victory at Voltri, leisurely began establishing a new cordon from Voltri to Monte Negino. On 12th April 1796 Bonaparte crushed General Eugène-Guillaume-Alexis Mercy d'Argenteau's 6,000 white-coats at Montenotte. The Austrians had 2,500 casualties. Meanwhile GVukassovich's 3,500 white-coats slowly marched toward Dego. The weather was horrible, cold and rainy. Austrian light cavalrymen came with sensational news that Dego is full of sleeping French veterans. Vukassovich's infantry "promptly hit Dego like a rockslide."

    The French woke up and fled in panick before Massena was able to stop them. Bonaparte was angry, Massena and his troops were again routed by the white-coats !

    Bonaparte gathered up Victor's and Laharpe's troops, while Vukassovich occupied Dego and called for Argentau to join him. The timid Argentau assumed that Vukassovich was in a hopeless situation, and had himself hastily retired.

    At 2 PM the French attacked. The white-coats repulsed three assaults but when after 4 PM the French outflanked them, Vukassovich abandoned Dego and retired toward Spigno. For Bonaparte Vukassovich's action indicated the proximity of Beaulieu'a army, he immediately sent strong patrols to determine its location. The patrols had reported that the Austrians abandoned Voltri and are moving north and north-west.


    The French grenadiers captured a big ferry
    and surged across the Po River to confront
    the Allies.

    Operations Against Colli and Beaulieu.
    King of Sardinia decided that his Austrian allies
    were as dangerous as the French, and he accepted
    Bonaparte's terms.

    Vukassovich stalled Bonaparte's advance at Dego, but Beaulieu and Argentau took no advantage of this situation. Timid Argentau turned around and retired. Beaulieu abandoned Voltri and was focused on collecting his scattered troops and restoring the cordon screen. Later Vukassovich while shut up in Mantua, did great service during the siege of that place.

    Bonaparte decided to turn against the other army, Colli's Italians. Colli put 6,500 of his 25,000 men into entrenched camp. The French under Général Amédée-Emmanuel-François de La Harpe attacked him but without result. After learning about Baron Josef Vukassovich's defeat at Dego, Colli gathered up 13,000 troops, left the camp and took a new strong position. The Austrian defeat and withdrawal, made a very bad impression on the Sardinians, and desertion rocketed. On 20 April Colli had only 10,000 men.

    Bonaparte arrived and reconnoitered Colli's position but in the night the Sardinians withdrew northwest. Bonaparte caught up with Colli east of Mondovi. Approx. 1,500 Sardinians and a heavy battery deployed on a steep hill covering a bridge. The French fixed them with heavy skirmishing and enveloped on the right and left. After some fighting they drove Colli to Mondovi.

    Rumors of French-Sardinian negotiations rejuvenated the Austrians, but Beaulieu halted his slow advance on learning that the French are already in Alba. The angry Austrians demanded posession of Alessandria fortress as pledge of Sardinian loyalty. King of Sardinia decided that his Austrian allies were as dangerous as the French, and he accepted Bonaparte's terms.

    Bonaparte and French line infantry After signing the armistice, Bonaparte sent his troops after the retreating Austrians. Beaulieu took position behind Po River and had destroyed the bridges along his front. Bonaparte had no pontoon bridge but he sent 100 picked light cavalrymen to secure boats.

    Bonaparte formed a special advance guard by detaching the grenadier and carabinier companies and forming them into provisional division. This division was strengthened with horse battery and 1,600 light cavalrymen. The French grenadiers captured a big ferry and surged across the Po River. On another side stood 2 squadrons of Hungarian hussars but they soon left and Fench engineers improvised a trail bridge and were fortifying a bridgehead on the north bank.


    Bonaparte would say that "it was Lodi that made him
    certain he could be a man of high destiny."
    The troops gave him the affectionate nickname
    Le Petit Corporal (Little Corporal)

    Battle of Lodi, 10th May 1796.
    Out of the smoke, straight across the long bridge,
    roared 3,000 Frenchmen with fixed bayonets.

    Battle of Lodi. Chandler writes: "Bonaparte after crossing the river Po near Piacenza, was making a determined effort to trap General Beaulieu west of the Adda. In fact the French arrived too late to prevent the Austrian retreat, and at Lodi only fought Beaulieu's rear guard." (Chandler - "Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars" p 252)

    Beaulieu formed his rear guard of light cavalry and grenadiers under Sebottendorf. At Zorlesco the French attacked them, "the Austrian grenadiers died hard, but quickly." Their survivors poured into Lodi with the French hot on their heels. Bealieu had 10,000 white-coats at Lodi against 30,000 under Bonaparte.
    At 11 AM the French brought 2 guns and was raking the length of the bridge, to the discouradgement of any Austrian attempt to burn it. As 28 more cannons came up, Bonaparte massed them along the river to pound the Austrian battery.

    The French storming 
the bridge at Lodi. 
In left bottom corner 
Bonaparte and his staff. Bonaparte formed 3,000 infantry in one long column, six abreast. Meanwhile the French guns doubled its ratio of fire and the Austrian battery was forced to retire. Now, out of the smoke, straight across the very long bridge, roared the 3,000 Frenchmen. They got to the center of the bridge before the white-coats opened musket fire and smashed the front ranks into a tangle of killed and wounded.

    Red-bearded Major Dupas shouted the men on, while Berthier seized a flag and went forward. The infantrymen rushed forward with outstretched bayonets. The French advanced with their hats down over their eyes, just as if advancing against a hailstorm. The Austrians' counter-attack was magnificent, and they pushed the French back toward the river.

    French cavalry regiment swam below Lodi and hit the Austrians left. Masséna's and Augereau's infantry poured through Lodi and joined the fight. The Austrians had enough and retired. Bonaparte lost 1,000-2,000 killed and wounded, Beaulieu had 2,000 casualties.

    Bponaparte's sighting a cannon. The news about victory at Lodi created a tremendous sensation in Paris. Bonaparte would say that "it was Lodi that made him certain he could be a man of high destiny." Napoleon's troops gave him the affectionate nickname Le Petit Corporal "The Little Corporal" (he sighted a cannon, usually it was job for an corporal).

    The Battle of Lodi solidified Bonaparte's personal relationship with his troops, who admired him for his courage and willingness to face the same dangers as common soldiers.

    Adda River near Lodi. ( French cavalry attempted to ford the river somewhere in the area on the right of the picture.

    Commander-in-Chief General Beaulieu
    Austrian troops at Lodi.
    General Karl Sebottendorf
    . . . . . . . 2nd Hussar Regiement (4 squadrons)
    . . . . . . . Uhlan Regiement (2 squadrons)
    . . . . . . . I/16th Infantry Regiment
    . . . . . . . II/19th Infantry Regiment
    . . . . . . . I/39th Infantry Regiment
    . . . . . . . I/43rd Infantry Regiment
    . . . . . . . I/44th Infantry Regiment
    . . . . . . . 8 6pdr guns
    General Josef Phillip Vukassovich
    . . . . . . . Grenzer Battalion
    . . . . . . . Grenzer Battalion
    . . . . . . . Grenzer Battalion
    . . . . . . . 2 6pdr guns
    General Nicoletti (at Corte Palasio)
    . . . . . . . Hussars (2 squadrons)
    . . . . . . . II/19th Infantry Regiment
    . . . . . . . I/23rd Infantry Regiment
    . . . . . . . I,II/27th Infantry Regiment
    General Anton Schübirz (left Lodi early morning)
    . . . . . . . Hussars (4 squadrons)
    . . . . . . . I,II/??th Infantry Regiment
    . . . . . . . I,II/??th Infantry Regiment
    (30 minutes east of Lodi, at Fontana)
    . . . . . . . Neapolitam Chasseurs (8 squadrons)

    Commander-in-Chief Napoleon Bonaparte
    Chief-of-Staff General Berthier

    French troops at Lodi.
    Combined Grenadier Division - Général Dallemagne
    . . . . . . . I and II Combined Carabinier Batalion
    . . . . . . . I and II Combined Grenadier Batalion
    . . . . . . . III and IV Combined Grenadier Batalion
    . . . . . . . 2 4pdr guns
    Attached cavalry - General Kilmaine
    . . . . . . . 1st Hussar Regiment (3 squadrons)

    Cavalry Division - Général de Beaumont
    Cavalry Brigade
    . . . . . . . 10th Chasseurs à Cheval Regiment (3 squadrons)
    . . . . . . . 24th Chasseurs à Cheval Regiment (3 squadrons)
    Cavalry Brigade
    . . . . . . . 5th Dragoon Regiment (2 squadrons)
    . . . . . . . 20th Dragoon Regiment (3 squadrons)

    Infantry Division - Général Masséna
    Infantry Brigade - Général de La Salcette
    . . . . . . . 17th Light Demi-Brigade (3 battalions)
    Infantry Brigade - Général Meynier
    . . . . . . . 14th Line Demi-Brigade (3 battalions)
    . . . . . . . 32nd Line Demi-Brigade (3 battalions)
    Infantry Brigade - Général Rondeau
    . . . . . . . 46th Line Demi-Brigade (3 battalions)
    . . . . . . . 99th Line Demi-Brigade (3 battalions)
    Divisional Artillery
    . . . . . . . 6 6pdr guns
    . . . . . . . 4 4pdr guns

    Infantry Division (part) - Général Laharpe
    Infantry Brigade - Général Cervoni
    . . . . . . . 51st Line Demi-Brigade (2 battalions)
    . . . . . . . 75th Line Demi-Brigade (3 battalions)
    . . . . . . . 2 4pdr guns



    In 4 days Bonaparte had hacked a bloody breach
    between Colli and Beaulieu, sending Beaulieu
    staggering northward to regroup.
    Then, wheeling westward, in 14 days more
    he had crushed Colli.

    Bonaparte's instinct for war had met every challenge !"
    "For a century the first (Napoleon's) campaign in Italy
    has been described - I am almost tempted to say, sung -
    as a triumphant epic of offensive movements ..."
    - Liddell Hart

    Bonaparte successfully divided Allies. Colli was surrounded in the west, Beaulieu was pursued in the east. The Allies crossed Po River and marched toward Mincio River and the powerful Mantova (Mantua) fortress. It was the key to control of northern Italy and was bitterly disputed by the French and Austrians.

    Meanwhile French infantry slipped through the British fleet and raised Corsica in revolt against the British forces. (In 1794 British warships were sent to Corsica by King George III to help the Corsicans rid the island of the French and to establish a secure base for the British who had been kicked out of Toulon).

    Beaulieu hastily retired toward the fortress of Mantua and took positions behind the Mincio River. In 4 days Bonaparte had hacked a bloody breach between Colli and Beaulieu, sending Beaulieu staggering northward to regroup.

    Then, wheeling westward, in 14 days more he had crushed General Colli and his Sardinians.

    Bonaparte enters Milan Bonaparte made a triumphant entry into the wealthy and important city Milan. He organized the occupied territory to support and feed his troops. Bonaparte's soldiers were finally clothed, well fed and well paid.

    On 24th May an insurection exploded around Milan and Pavia, sparked by French greed. A whirlwind march of Bonaparte's troops ended with Pavia stormed and pillaged. Terrified by the successes of the godless French, Naples requested armistice and the Pope swiftly made territorial concessions, and also yielded 34 million francs in treasure.

    Bonaparte's troops also seized Leghorn on Italian coast, which the English had appropriated as a naval base and commercial port. The French occupied Leghorn with 2,500 infantry. The French infantrymen slipped through the British fleet and raised Corsica in revolt against the British forces.

    According to David Gibson "Italy was a secondary theater, locked in a defensive strategy at the time Napoleon assumed command.
    His strategy clearly was to divide the Piedmontese Army from their Austrian senior partners. Initially, his campaign against the Piedmontese was unsuccessful and wasteful.
    His frontal assaults at Ceva were futile. This is not the Napoleon of legend; the aggressiveness is there, but not the tactical finesse. Italy was Napoleon's "on-the-job training." He did not spring, fully developed, into the great military mind that history holds him. But the seeds of military genius are present in this campaign. He was eventually able to neutralize the Piedmont Army by a threatened movement against Turin.
    His subsequent campaigns against the Austrian Army in Italy further honed his strategic and tactical skills."

    Young Bonaparte By maintenance of the initiative, rapidity of maneuver and concentration of superior forces at the right moment and the right place, he defeated every army thrown at him. According to British historian Liddell Hart "For a century the first (Napoleon's) campaign in Italy has been described - I am almost tempted to say, sung - as a triumphant epic of offensive movements, according to which Bonaparte conquered Italy so easily because he followed up attack with attack, with a boldness that was equal to his good luck."

    According to American historians Vincent Esposito and John Elting, Bonaparte's Italian campaign revolutionized the prevaling deliberate, chessboard concepts of the art of war. Luck not favored Bonaparte, the weather had clogged his operations, and the carelessness of his generals and poor supplies invited disaster. Bonaparte's instinct for war had met every challenge !"

    Bonaparte by Lalauze. At the end of the campaign, Bonaparte's first year of independent command (!), he stood less than 100 miles from Vienna, the Austrian capital. He forced the Austrians to a truce and then a peace, captured 160,000 prisoners of war, 170 flags and more than 2,000 guns, and extorted untold millions of francs in contributions.

    Within next months Bonaparte had defeated 7 armies. It was astounding success. Very quickly he became the idol of all Frenchmen and half of Europe. His reputation and fame had spread like a wildfire, from England to Russia, and from Germany to Italy.

    Sources and Links

    Esposito, Elting - "A Military History and Atlas of the Napoleonic Wars"
    David Chandler - "The Campaigns of Napoleon"
    Wilkinson, Spenser - "The French army before Napoleon; lectures delivered before the University of Oxford ..."

    Bonaparte Family.
    Battle of Lodi.
    Second Battle of Dego.
    First Battle of Dego.
    Piedmontese army.
    Travel to Piedmont.

    Napoleon, His Army and Enemies